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7. Behaviorism: Vicarious reinforcement and teaching machines
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◆Five principles of programmed learning◆
Researchers of programmed learning formulated five principles shown below in Table 6-1. According to behaviorist psychology, a learning effect is considered to be measured by the number of responses a learner makes under arranged conditions. Feedback should be given to correct responses in order to "reinforce" such response, and it was thought that such a process would require individual learning. Researchers' conclusions above are expressed in principles 1-4 of the table below. I think the last principle; "Learner verification" is the most valuable contribution that behaviorist psychology has made to the pedagogy in terms of valuing an empirical approach. Such a standpoint is inherited in "Formative Evaluation" or "Feedback and Improvement" in an ID process.
Table 6-1: Five principles of programmed learning
Note: Based on H. Azuma, et al., (Eds.) (1979) New Dictionary of Education, p.720